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Kamis, 09 Juni 2011

ATLAS OF IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS, MINERAL AND TEXTURE

SUMBER :
(K. RATAJESKI AND A. GLEZNER) PART OF VIRTUAL GEOLOGY PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA

INDEX OF MINERALS
Glaucophane


Note the anomalous blue-gray interference colors in the glaucophane in this slide.

Hornblende

Note the characteristic ~120 degree cleavage angles in some sections and the brown to green. pleochroism.

Tremolite

Talc forms the fine-grained matrix between the prismatic crystals of tremolite in this rock. Note the ~120 degree cleavages in some of the tremolite sections.


Andalusite



This is an andalusite porphyroblast with poikiloblastic texture. Also note how the foliation (oriented roughly N-S in this view) is wrapped around the left and right corners of this grain, suggesting synkinematic growth of the andalusite porphyroblast.

Augite (Clinopyroxene)

Note the pigeonite twin lamellae in this grain. Pigeonite is a Ca-poor clinopyroxene.Besides clinopyroxene's 2nd order colors, another way to distinguish clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene is by clinopyroxene's inclined extinction.

Biotite

Note the anomalous red interference color.

Calcite

Note the rhombohedral cleavage and very high order interference colors.

Chlorite

Chlorite defines the foliation in this rock, which also shows some crenulation cleavage.

Chlorite replacing biotite  

In this photo, a large "book" of red-brown biotite is partially replaced by green chlorite.



When replacing biotite (brown), chlorite (green) typically appears to "spread apart" the sheets of the biotite structure.

Chloritoid


These stubby crystals are chloritoid porphyroblasts. You can just barely see the anomalous green interference color at the edge of some of the grains.Despite the name, chloritoid really doesn't look anything like chlorite.

Coesite

Coesite (center of inclusion) and recrystallized quartz (borders of inclusion) form a tiny inclusion in nearly pure endmember pyrope garnet from the famous Dora Maira massif of Italy. The presence of coesite (a high-pressure polymorph of quartz) indicates that this rock saw extremly high pressures during metamorphism (probably more than 28 kbar). 

Ellenbergerite

The dark reddish-purple grain in the center of this photomicrograph is ellenbergerite, an extremely rare, high-pressure Mg-Al-Ti-silicate, which here forms an inclusion in nearly pure endmember pyrope garnet from the famous Dora Maira massif of Italy.



Epidote

Note the high-order interference colors of epidote. This slide is actually cut a little thin, and doesn't show the third-order colors that epidote may display in some sections

Microcline (K-feldspar)

Cross-hatched (or "tartan") twinning in microcline. Contrast this with polysynthetic twinning in plagioclase feldspar.

Plagioclase

This slide showcases one of plagioclase's very common features: its polysynthetic twinning. Contrast this with twinning in microcline (K-feldspar).


This plagioclase is a xenocryst in a vitrophric volcanic rock. Note the compositional zoning and the fractured portion of the crystal.


Garnet

Note the zonal distribution of quartz inclusions in this garnet porphyroblast

Hypersthene



Orthopyroxenes are noted for having low, first-order interference colors. Also note the cleavages that intersect at about 90 degrees.Another identifying characteristic of orthopyroxene is its parallel

Vesuvianite

Vesuvianite displays the deepest indigo blue anomalous interference colors you've ever seen!



A fairly uninteresting photo here.

Kyanite

Note the first-order interference colors and prismatic habit of kyanite.

Leucite

Note the nearly isotropic nature of these leucite grains

Muscovite

This grain is shown at maximum birefringnence.Take a look at this grain at extinction to see muscovite's wonderful "bird's eye" mottling.



Nepheline

Many of the phenocrysts in this basalt are nepheline

Olivine

Almost all of the grains in this rock are olivine. Note the high order interference colors and the minor secondary calcite.

Piemontite

Piemontite has beautiful, high-order interference colors


Piemontite has beautiful rose to yellow pleochroism.

Quartz

This slide shows quartz in a range of crystal orientations, all having low-first order interference colors.


Sub-grains in quartz

The crystal structure of this quartz grain has been deformed (probably by low-grade metamorphism) to produce sub-grains

Quartz after coesite

The region of coarser-grained quartz in the upper center portion of this photomicrograph was probably originally occopied by coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of quartz. Metamorphic rocks from the Dora Maira Massif show other evidence of being exhumed from EXTREMELY deep levels in thickened crust.

Sericite (a fine-grained variety of muscovite)

The feldspars in this alaskite from the Boulder Batholith have been largely replaced by fine-grained muscovite (sericite). In this rock, sericite is a product of hydrothermal alteration.

Staurolite

The "swiss cheese" look (i.e., poikiloblastic texture) of these staurolite porphyroblasts is typical for this mineral. Also note the strong banana yellow pleochroism.



The "swiss cheese" look (i.e., poikiloblastic texture) of these staurolite porphyroblasts is typical for this mineral

Stilpnomelane

Stilpnomelane looks alot like biotite (same habit and color) but lacks the "bird's eye" extinction that biotite displays. Actually, the stilpnomelane in this slide has a more acicular habit than most biotite.


Stilpnomelane looks alot like biotite (same habit and color) but lacks the "bird's eye" extinction that biotite displays. Actually, the stilpnomelane in this slide has a more acicular habit than most biotite.

Titanite

Titanite typically forms wedge-shaped crystals like this one. Also notice the extremely high interference colors.


Titanite typically forms wedge-shaped crystals like this one. Also notice the extremely high relief.



Tourmaline

This slide shows extinct trigonal cross-sections and elongate sections displaying maximum birefringence. The matrix is quartz.


This slide shows zoned trigonal cross-sections and elongate sections. Note green to brown pleochroism. Tourmaline may also display bluish pleochroism.

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